WEEK 1, Wednesday 2nd March

First day in Research method RES701 class.

Today we have gone through the course, course outline and assignments. The things that can help us to study about the Research method discussed and also about the blog and why we need to write a blog which is a journal for RES701 where we can write  what we have studied in class.

  • What do think ‘research’ is?

Little question

Research is a process of exploring information or data about specific topic to find out the answers of WHAT, WHY, HOW, WHEN, WHERE etc. There are many different definitions of research but the core purpose of research is to discover, describe, explain and predict the data and information. It extends human knowledge about research and research topic.

  • Do you think you will ever need research skills?

Research skills are very important specially for a student to find out the problem’s solutions, to get better outcomes and to know and study about specific topic thoroughly so that we can be able to understand the problems with that topic. Today it is easy to search on google to find out the information about any topic and we need research skills to manage that information systematically to get everything that we need about the topic. So the research skills are the key to a successful research.

  • What do you think a research journal is and who is it written for?

The research journal is a way to store the information physically. It can be in different ways like an online blog, hand written notebook, a word document file etc. For a student, it is very important to have a journal to store ideas, research, notes etc. It is written for anyone who want to do research, wants to get some ideas.

  • What is plagiarism?

Plagiarism is stealing someone else’s work, ideas and use it as your own without saying where that come from and without citing the original source. This includes information from websites, books, articles, artworks or any other medium.

  • Why is it important to avoid it?

It is important and beneficial to avoid plagiarism for anyone. Because it can cause legal damage and no one want that someone copy their ideas, research and notes. For a student, it is very important to avoid otherwise it will result as fail in the paper.

Moreover, it is easy to copy any topic from internet and from someone’s research but then we will not understand anything about the topic and cannot be able to demonstrate and describe that in front of others.

WEEK 2, Wednesday 9th March

  • What is ontology? How is it relevant to research?

Ontology is a study of existence and identification of things or addressing the questions like:

  1. What is existence?
  2. What is the nature of existence?

For example: Two basic differences can be made here:

Frist, there is a real world that is independent from our knowledge and upon these foundations life is built.

Second, there is no real world but the world is socially and discursively constructed and hence dependent from a particular time or culture.

  • What is epistemology? How is it relevant to research?

Epistemology refers to the body of philosophy that involves with the presence of knowledge. It raises many questions including: 1. how reality can be known, 2. the relationship between the know-er and what is known, 3. the characteristics, the principles, the assumptions that guide the process of knowing and the achievement of findings, and 4. the possibility of that process being shared and repeated by others in order to assess the quality of the research and the reliability of those findings.

  • What is the connection between ontology and epistemology in a research context?

There is a connection between both of them which is that both branches of philosophy that try to explain the existence of an something.

Ontology which indicates the study of how something existed, its nature, or being, usually answers the question ‘what’.

Epistemology is often considered as the theory of knowledge, in which we know something exists, and it answers the questions ‘how’ and ‘what’.

WEEK 3, Wednesday 23rd March

This week i have prepared questions with answers by using different kind of methods that can be used in research and my topic is “INTERVIEW” and my answers are:

1. What is it ? (Short description of how it works)

Interview is the conversation between two people for the purpose of collecting information for a definite purpose. Two people sit together in front of each other and talk to each other with different questions and answers. The interviewer always tried to make a rapport with interviewee and shows like it is just a simple conversation to make interviewee comfortable and confident.

There are different types of interview:

  1. Structured Interview
  2. Unstructured Interview
  3. Personal Interview
  4. Online Interview
  5. Telephone Interview
  6. Group Interview

2. What kinds of questions/problems might it be useful for?

There are many questions ask by interviewer to get information about the interviewee experience and these questions are very useful to know about the interviewee. When a company hire new people, they ask different questions which are related to the physical and mental strength, problem solving skills through which they can judge how much that person can handle pressure and difficult situations etc. There are some questions like past work experience, most difficult situation person handle, skilled thing in the person or what skills that person have to get job, how he/she is suitable for the job  etc.

3. How could it be used in IT research  (try to think of an example)?

In IT, the interviews are highly useful because of the rapid grown in technology, it is not only about the questions on personal information and past experience, it is also about how people implement the new technology, new programming languages skills and how skilled they are to use the technology at work etc. So I think, interviews in IT is most important to collect the technical information about the people, how they understand the technology ans techniques, how to keep it up to date. IT is all about practical knowledge and all you have to do practice and practice with new skills and programming or coding so that you can implement that in interview.

4. What are the strengths of the approach?

In any interview, interviewer always try to explore interviewee as much as he/she can to find out their strengths and which is also important to know about the person. The interviewee should answer what he/she love to do most in the work and outside the work and always try to open their-self with interviewer. The interview offers the interviewee a chance to promote their strengths and skills, which will help to differentiate them from other candidates. It is more likely that a candidate will come across at their best when talking about what they enjoy doing most and come up with the best they have in them.

5. What are the weaknesses of the approach?

In an interview, interviewer ask lots of rapid questions to the interviewer and because of sort time, interviewee always try to answer each and every question to satisfy the interviewer. But sometimes people say something or do something what they do not normally do inside and outside the work because they do not get much time to think and answer. In my personal view, even though people prepare much before they go for interview, but there is a fear that always stay in mind what will happen, what kids of questions i will have to questions, can i answer all the questions and satisfy the interviewer etc., these kinds of questions come into mind that sometimes loose our confidence.

WEEK 4, Wednesday 30th March

In today’s class, we discussed the topics given to us in the class and each group explain the topics with all the questions about the topic.

Secondary Research Anil/William

  • Desk Research – not your own primary research – Literature Review.
  • All questions! Grounding new work in what has already been done.
  • It should always be used for all new work (Eg competitor analysis)
  • Easy to do, easy to access and cheaper than primary. Clarifies your question.

Observational Research   Ankur/Tony

  • Observation of ongoing behaviour of subject and recording what happens.
  • Used in marketing to see how the product is used. Human behaviour is the focus of the research.
  • Observing user behaviour. Human computer interaction.
  • Very direct method for collecting data on human behaviour, very accurate and precise.
  • Time consuming for researchers and also participants thus expensive.

Exploratory Research   John/Siva

  • Research conducted for a problem that has not been well defined.
  • A theory too general or unspecific can be formulated. After such research into something more feasible.
  • Why are windows phones less popular than other even when mobiles are expanding. Vague, no obvious starting point.
  • Increased understanding, concept testing, trial and error. Flexible. Allows to start.
  • Conclusions shouldn’t be final but should be the basis for action only further reseearch.

Case Study Research   Bryony/Shafique

  • Form of qualitative research used to gain understanding of a small group. Always in a real world context.
  • Descriptive/explanatory questions – How, why, what?
  • Why did Amazon succeed where others failed? Why was Apple successful. What holds companies back from doing something.
  • Good for gathering detail where things are different from the normal, flexible.

Experimental Research   Chris R/Satish

  • Scientific approach which takes a systematic approach. What people think of as a scientific experiment.
  • Problems that have a measurable result.
  • Testing hardware specs.
  • Repeatable. Results get stronger with repetition.
  • Subject to human error. Expensive.

Discourse Analysis   Christopher/Sam

Action Research   Corbin/Rajvinder

  • Learning about the problem by doing and about the solution by doing. Refining the problem over time.
  • Used to solve problems and refine questions.
  • Method for capturing business rules in ERD. Supported by weekly sessions with development team.
  • Use of natural language, communication is the strength of this approach. Result is practical.
  • Time consuming. Difficult to understand some people due to personal ideas.

Meta-Analysis   David/Pravin

  • Form of secondary research but done rigorously and formally – Systematic Reviews – Cochrane collaboration.
  • Useful for questions that can’t be answered well due to differing conditions.
  • In IT could be used to check ergonomics, user friendly languages. But can’t control the variables.
  • Less likely to be biased, very strong evidence, very credible.
  • Bad studies = bad meta analysis, publication bias, commitment research.

Argumentative  Drew/Neil

  • Taking one side and arguing in favour it. Using facts, evidence, opinions. Secondary research sources. Using best evidence available.
  • Narrow type question is best, at least very specific.
  • Why do we use floppy disk as an icon?
  • Back up arguments – strength, depth, questioning where things are at.
  • It can only be for a narrow argument. Limited scope. Bias.

Interview   Guri/Luke

Survey   Heather/Jay

Randomised Controlled Trials   Anthony/James

There are still few topics left that we will discuss next week.

Today i chose my intrested subject of Information Technology – Web Development an Design

Today I want to discuss about my passion to be a WEB DEVELOPER. This is my interest and hobby. It starts while I was pursuing my graduation in Computer Science and Technology in India(2009-2013). I had been involved into two Industrial training periods in my graduation, the first training was of 6 weeks after 2nd year of my study which I chose to attend in institute named ‘NIIT’ in ‘Web Designing’ and second was of 6 months in HCL company in ‘Web Development’. When i attend the first tanning in web design, i got influenced and decided to be a web developer and designer and that was the turning point of my life because i did not know what i am going to do after finish my study but i found my interest in Web development and designing.

What is web development?

Web development is the coding or programming that enables website functionality as per the client’s requirements. It mainly deals with the non-design aspect of building websites, which includes coding and writing markup.

It includes –

  • Client-side coding
  • Server-side coding
  • Database technology

In the institute, i learnt to design websites with HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Photoshop, Adobe Flash, PHP, MySQL Database, JQuery, Bootstrap etc. in Adobe Dreamweaver editor and it fascinates me initially. Then i started working on all the tools that are used to design a website. This experience with new IT technology was really good and enjoyable. I got good teacher who taught very well in that short period of time but always try to do more in the class and to make it better i always practice because practice is the only thing that comes with grantee that we can improve our skills and future.

HTML(Hypertext Markup Language) is the set of symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser page. The markup tells the Web browser how to display a Web page’s words and images for the user. Each individual markup code is referred to as an element (but many people also refer to it as a tag). Some elements come in pairs that indicate when some display effect is to begin and when it is to end.

HTML tags are the hidden keywords within a web page that define how the browser must format and display the content. Most tags must have two parts, an opening and a closing part. For example, <html> is the opening tag and </html> is the closing tag. There are different attributes of the HTML tags.

CSS(Cascading Style Sheets) added to HTML that gives both Web site developers and users more control over how pages are displayed. With CSS, designers and users can create style sheets that define how different elements, such as headers and links, appear. These style sheets can then be applied to any Web page.

It is of three different types:

  1. Inline CSS
  2. Internal CSS
  3. External CSS

PHP(Hypertext Preprocessor) is a widely-used open source general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for web development and can be embedded into HTML.

PHP script is enclosed within special PHP tags. Because PHP is embedded within tags, the author can jump between HTML and PHP instead of having to rely on heavy amounts of code to output HTML. And, because PHP is executed on the server, the client cannot view the PHP code.

For example:


echo “Hi, I’m a PHP script!”;


JavaScript and JQuery –

JavaScript is a programming language used to make web pages interactive. It runs on your visitor’s computer and doesn’t require constant downloads from your website. JavaScript is often used to create polls and quizzes. JavaScript can interact with HTML code enabling Web authors to spice up their sites with dynamic content. JavaScript is endorsed by a number of software companies and is an open language that anyone can use without purchasing a licence.

JQuery is a fast, small, and feature-rich JavaScript library. It makes things like HTML document traversal and manipulation, event handling, animation, and Ajax much simpler with an easy-to-use API that works across a multitude of browsers.

MySQL Database a structured set of data held in a computer, especially one that is accessible in various ways. I learned to use ‘phpmyadmin’ which is a free software tool written in PHP language, intended to handle the administration of MySQL over the Web and phpMyAdmin supports a wide range of operations on MySQL. Frequently used operations (managing databases, tables, columns, relations, indexes, users, permissions, etc) can be performed via the user interface, while you still have the ability to directly execute any SQL statement.

These are the tools are I learned during study my Graduation and there are some more tools but these are basic tools used tp develop and design a website. I am continue doing all these tools in my Graduation Diploma in IT in NMIT. I still have lot to learn more and I am learning it. The papers like WEB601, WEB701, DAT601 and PRJ701 that i have done in my graduation helped me a lot to achieve and improve my skills. I have good experience of studying under good tutors in NMIT and which encourage me to learn more in my field.

WEEK 5, Wednesday 6th April

Find at least 3 sources of evidence (e.g.. a blog post, a journal article, youtube video etc.) for each of these three areas. You don’t need to read or watch them.

Write a blog post and for each source you find:

Post the URL, e.g. http://

the search terms you used,

how you found it e.g. Google search or followed link from wikipedia

who wrote it

when it was written (or published)

what kind of ‘publication’ it is e.g. news item, youtube video, white paper

Do you think it is  ‘credible’ e.g. Yes or No or Maybe with reasons!

1. Digital Citizenship

  • While searched on google I found  this URL –

I have found it on Google and this is the first link on google search result page.

It was written by Mike Ribble

ISTE Publications, Digital Citizenship in Schools, Third Edition by Mike Ribble.

  • Youtube

I search on youtube and found this video about ‘Digital Citizenship’.

This video is created and uploaded by Grom Social (

Zach Marks, the creator of Grom Social. In late 2011, Zach set off on the biggest adventure of his young life – the creation of Grom Social. The video is credible because of the information provided  in this video and on the website also.


  • While searching on google i found a website which provide information for students, teachers and parents about digital citizenship and being safe, positive and responsible online ( ). This website is created by NSW Government (New South Wales). This information provided in this website is related to the digital citizenship and also very useful so i found it credible.

2. Database design

  • Searched on google and found first link about database design is  – URL:

It was written by  the company ‘Datanamic – Leading Vendor of Smart Tools for Database Developers’ and the company founded in 1999. They provide tool for database developer called DeZign for Database. There are articles, tutorials, knowledge base and videos for designing database which is very useful to learn and the information about the database design is credible. They keep on updating the software version to make it better and the latest version is DeZign for Databases V9 Standard  Version: 9.1.2

  • Youtube  link –

This video is created and posted by Caleb on youtube channel named ‘CalebTheVideoMaker2‘ and he created his channel on August 18, 2009.  He already has 21,215 subscribers and 2,151,592 views.

I also found his website which has lots of content on database including videos and blogs on database design.There are lots of videos, viewers and likes on his database skills and i also think it is credible with all the information about the database design.

  • There is book on Google scholar that i found about ‘Database Management System 2nd’ which is published by Osborne/McGraw-Hill Berkeley, CA, USA ©2000. This book was written by  Raghu Ramakrishnan and Johannes Gehrke.
 3. Oculus rift
  • Youtube video about oculus rift review

This video is posted by The Verge which has a 1,040,574 subscribers on youtube . This video is published on Mar 28, 2016 by The VergeThis video describe the reviews, working and use of oculus rift which is really interesting, yes it is credible what I saw in this video.

  • Search on google and found the official website of oculus rift

This website shows the features of the oculus rift, compatibility with other devices like mobile, computers, play stations and where it can be used.

There are many different articles on this website and the latest article that i saw is  “Dear Angelica is Oculus’ third virtual reality film, and it’s being made in VR” which is uploaded in this website on March 1 , 2016 and the original source is on another website where it was published by Adi Robertson on January 26, 2016.

Oculus in the News ( )

  • Oculus Rift review from trusted review website

This website shows the reviews on Oculus rift with features, video on trusted explains:What is VR?, living with oculus rift and the overall rating . It was published by Evan Kypreos and  updated: 07 April 2016. Is this credible or not? Well the features are interesting and fascinating but I am not completely sure about the credibility of this article.

WEEK 6, Wednesday 13th April

The 2 articles related to IT that i found are –

1 Seurity in Open Network Environment

Title – Security in Open Network Evironment

Aurthor – Mark Davies, John H Hine

  • APA reference – no APA reference found
  • I searched on NMIT library and found a link to website ( There I found this article and keyword used is network security.
  • It is a research paper.
  • It has 9 references
  • No information about citation.
  • I think this article is fit for academic structure because this article has abstract, introduction, conclusion and references.

2. Cloud computing and security issues in cloud


Aurthor – Monjur Ahmed and Mohammad Ashraf Hossain

  • APA reference

Ahmed, M., & Hossain, M. A. (2014). Cloud computing and security issues in the cloud. International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications,6(1), 25.

  • I found this article on google and I use cloud computing journal pdf keyword.
  • It is Journal paper article
  • This is acadmic becase there is no publication detail.
  • It has 49 references
  • cited by 24


WEEK 9, Wednesday 4th May

1. Did the abstract tell you the three things I said it should? If not, what did it tell you? (NB If your paper doesn’t have an abstract, it is not an academic research paper!!! Go and find another one!)

Yes, the abstract of this article describe the research topic, what author researched about and what they discovered from the research.

2. What seems to be the research question(s) they were trying to answer?

There has been a dramatic growth in internet and the authors try to answer the security threats that will arises from connecting private and enterprise network to a public network. The questions on threats that can occur from an internet connection also answered.

3.  How credible do you think the paper is? (hint: look at who authors are and where and when it is published also compare what they were asking with what they did)

The authors are Mark and John. Mark is network manager and John is the professor in the Department of Computer Science at Victoria University of Wellington. They have studied well about the networking and security, the content in abstract, introduction and conclusion seems credible to me.

4. Did you agree, or not, with what they wrote in their conclusion? Why?

I do agree with what author wrote in conclusion because it includes the important content or points that need to discuss about the security and also outlined the alternative firewall designs.

5. Briefly describe two things that you learnt from the paper.

I have learnt a lot of thing in this article because I have not studied networking very well so far and this article is all about network and security. In this article I learnt about internet security issues, what are the threats if connect private network to the public network and how to remove the threats and firewall design etc.

6. In no more than 250 of your own words (i.e. a paraphrase), describe what the paper is about – you could start with “This paper describes……….”

This paper describes how to secure network when connect from private and enterprise network to public network or securing private and enterprise network from unwanted disturbance from internet. This paper includes the design of firewall because firewall is acts as a gateway between an internal network and an external network.

Moreover, it will cover –

  1. Security Policy
  2. IP packet filters which includes Circuit gateway and Application Gateway.
  3. The attack from threats and how to manage and planned carefully.
  4. The firewall Defense and designing a firewall in which the alternatives ways are discussed.

WEEK 10, Wednesday 11th May

Broad Research/Project Interest Area

Description of area of IT that interests you

My interesting subject in IT is Web design which includes many different skills and maintenance of web sites. The different areas of web design include web graphic design, interface design, user experience design; and search engine optimization etc.

Why is it interesting to you

Because it fascinates me when I started studying about web design in my graduating. I felt like what wanted to know how web sites works, how websites designed and how to implement it on internet.

Three things you know about it

How to design a website

Tools like Dreamweaver, Photoshop, flash etc.

How to work on CMS

Three things you believe about it

I believe the design of the website should be easy to access and understand for the users or user-friendly.

The websites should be more secure from the hackers  and specially on e-commerce website.

The website is designed in a manner so that it is well matched with all the browsers in the world.

Three things you don’t know about it

I do not know enough about Ajax and JQuery

I do not have enough knowledge of Adobe Flash

How to secure websites from threats and hackers (which method can be used to secure a website).

Find an online resource about it – (post url)

WEEK 11, Wednesday 18th May

Website design: Then and Now

Technology is moving at a very fast rate in the modern era – so much so that unless you work in some related field, it can be impossible to keep up with the kinds of technologies that are out there. Within less a few years, technology has radically changed the way we communicate, the way we find information, where and what we buy and many other aspects of day to day life.


Web design has come a long way since the first ever website was published in 1991. The first website marked the beginning of what would become a digital revolution and while recollections of “under construction” GIFs and blinding background colors make me thankful for just how far web design has come, there are some historical web design choices that in fact demand a nod of approval.

The first ever website –


There was no such thing as “high-speed” when it came to internet connections. It was dial-up modems, or it was nothing. Therefore, websites from these early days needed to be built for less-than-stellar connection speeds. They were largely comprised of text, and what we now take for granted as “design layout” did not exist. While later versions of HTML allowed for more complex design capabilities, they were still extremely basic, consisting mainly of tags for headers, paragraphs, and links. Visual considerations such as typography, imagery, and navigation were still things of the not-too distant future.

The mid 2000‘s was a time when the standard website layout we have all become used to really developed. We saw websites frequently being designed with top navigation and left bar categories. This is largely due to the fact that pages with huge amounts of text were becoming unacceptable; website designers realized that browsers would interact more if information was categorized for them. Scrolling was also very unpopular and webpages were short and narrow. Colours used were varied but whites, blacks and blues, as well as darker shades were widespread. It was also around this time that the first content management systems appeared, allowing website owners to edit their content and make changes to certain aspects of the website.

In 2010-2013, drop down menus were the norm on desktop websites. Design was becoming more ‘out there; in terms of the colours chosen, and we saw just about everything on the colour spectrum used successfully. The emergence of smartphones led to the widespread design of mobile-sites, add-on websites (if you will) that needed to be designed and managed separately. Magazine-like layouts with narrow columns and textured rather than single colour backgrounds become trendy. An emphasis on the use of info graphics was also seen, where information was organised through digital imagery. Towards the end of this period, video backgrounds also became the mark of a top of the range websites and increasing broadband internet speeds allowed for this.

2014-2016: In the past couple of years we’ve seen the increasing popularity of responsive websites that change according to the device on which they are viewed. This has replaced the mobile-site phenomenon of 2010-13, which is a hugely important development. This has meant longer home pages with minimal text, larger rotating banners and unconventional navigation panels. Information is being broken up into ‘slides’ so as to preset it in a more readable format, with large font headings that stand out to browsers. There is also a recent emphasis on large, high resolution images and what might be described as a reduction is the ‘fluff’ that took up a lot of your screen even 5 years ago. To put it simply, websites are more streamlined, fonts are also becoming flatter and flatter and icons are everywhere.

Reference –

WEEK 12, Wednesday 25th May

Gi-Fi and Li-Fi Technology


The wireless networks has been changed from past few years and continue growing. The introduction of wireless networks has proved a revolutionary solution to many problems like it reduced the usage of wire cables. Then optical fiber invented which played very dominant role for its higher bit rates and faster transmission but the installation of cables caused a greater difficulty and thus led to wireless access. The fight of searching the better technology was continue and the disadvantages of the old wireless technology leds to the introduction of new technology which is ‘Gi-Fi’.

Gi-Fi is Gigabit Wireless which is the world’s first transceiver integrated on a single chip. It will allow wireless transfer of audio and video data up to 5 gigabits per second, ten times the current maximum wireless transfer rate. Gi-Fi will helps to push wireless communications to the better technology then earlier technologies like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.


Li-Fi technology is a ground-breaking light-based communication technology, which makes use of light waves instead of radio technology to deliver data. Using the visible light spectrum, Li-Fi technology can transmit data and unlock capacity which is 10,000 times greater than that available within the radio spectrum. We can use data  from LED lights because the light is a part of electromagnetic spectrum. The lights are everywhere in the world which is the fastest way to transfer data. The founder of Li-Fi technology explain the advantages and disadvantages of this technology.

The Li-Fi technology is very cheap, efficient and good alternative to the radio-based wireless technology. This technology is very effective in some places where radio waves are not allowed like aircraft, hospitals etc. and every light source could potentially be a Li-Fi.  The data can be accessed at very high speed. But there are some disadvantages also like light waves cannot penetrate walls, it is detectable up to a distance of 10 meter etc.

WEEK 13, Wednesday 1st June

Search Engine Optimization

SEO is an organic method of making a search engine friendly website. SEO is a set of practices to make the website and its contents noteworthy and visible to both the search engines and the web users. In other words, Search engine optimization is a methodology of strategies, techniques and tactics used to increase the amount of visitors to a website by obtaining a high-ranking placement in the search results page of a search engine including Google, Bing, Yahoo and other search engines.

Importance of SEO

Search engines serve millions of users looking for answers to their questions or for solutions to their problems in a day.  If you have a web site, blog or online store, SEO can help your business grow and meet the business objectives. SEO is not only about search engines but good SEO practices improve the user experience and usability of a web site. SEO can put you ahead of the competition like if two different websites are selling the same products, the search engine optimized website is more likely to have more customers and make more sales. The majority of search engines users are more likely to choose one of the top 5 suggestions in the results page so to take advantage of this and gain visitors to your website.

How it works?

Crawling – Process of fetching all the web pages linked to a website. This task is performed by a software called a crawler or a spider.

Indexing – Process of creating index for all the fetched web pages and keeping them into a giant database from where it can later be retrieved. Essentially, the process of indexing is identifying the words and expressions that best describe the page and assigning the page to particular keywords.

Processing – When a search request comes, the search engine processes it, i.e., it compares the search string in the search request with the indexed pages in the database.

Calculating Relevancy – It is likely that more than one page contains the search string, so the search engine starts calculating the relevancy of each of the pages in its index to the search string.

Retrieving Results – The last step in search engine activities is retrieving the best matched results. Basically, it is nothing more than simply displaying them in the browser

There are two types of SEO –

  1. White Hat SEO
  2. Black hat SEO

1. White hat SEO

White Hat has the following features:

  • It conforms to the search engine’s guidelines.
  • It does not involve in any deception.
  • It ensures that the content a search engine indexes, and subsequently ranks, is the same content a user will see.
  • It ensures that a web page content should have been created for the users and not just for the search engines.
  • It ensures good quality of the web pages

2. Black Hat SEO

Black Hat has the following features:

  • Attempting ranking improvements that are disapproved by the search engines and/or involve deception.
  • Redirecting users from a page that is built for search engines to one that is more human friendly.
  • Redirecting users to a page that was different from the page the search engine ranked.

On-site and Off-site SEO

On-site SEO

On site SEO refers to settings you can apply on the website so that it is optimized for search engines. The most important on-site SEO tips are:

  • Optimized titles and descriptions
  • Proper URL Structures
  • User friendly navigation (breadcrumbs, user sitemaps)
  • Optimized internal links
  • Text Formatting (use of h1,h2,bold etc)
  • Image optimization (image size, proper image names, use of ALT tag)
  • Fast loading pages
  • Google Authorship verification for all pages
  • External links (no broken links or links to ‘bad’ sites)

Off-site SEO

Unlike On-site SEO, off-site SEO refers to activities outside the boundaries of the webpage. The most important are:

  • Link Building
  • Social Media
  • Social bookmarking

Reference –

How SEO Works


This is the last class and last blog post of Res701, thank you to our tutor Dr. Clare Atkins who taught us very well because of that I have learnt lots of different skills to research and lots of new things in this course. This was totally new subject to me, when I started studying about research then I thought I already know this subject, I know how to do research on a topic but when gradually we move on to the different topics about research that made me feel something different and new in this subject to learn. This subject was actually very interesting and lots of new things were included in this course that indeed increase my knowledge about research methods and skills.We have covered lots of things like what is research, how to do research and what methods we need to research, what is true and truth, ontology and epistemology, credibility etc. I never studied the most of the material that i studied in this course. So for me, it was very enjoyable. interesting course in IT until now.

Another interesting thing in this course was blog post on every week which was a practice to implement what we learn from class lecture and to increase our knowledge about particular topic or any other topic. We did some activities in the class like area of interest, interesting things in IT, working on a topic with different kinds of research methods, looking for credibility evidence etc. and those activities were interesting to learn things when pair we other students. Everyone participate in the activities and explain the things according to themselves. All the work that i did in this course was very helpful to get knowledge about research methods. All in all i really enjoyed the course and gain valueless knowledge about the course which definitely will be helpful in future.


3 thoughts on “RES701

  1. I think it is important to say that this paper is secondary not primary research – the author collects together information from other papers and puts it together to create a new understanding.


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